large scale manufacturing of tiebox PV solar unit
The energy demand in Egypt increases by 2.6% per year according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) and hence Egypt will need to find other sources of energy to meet this increasing demand. Solar Energy represents one of the most promising alternative energy sources in Egypt since it is one of the sun-belt countries with high radiation intensity. The distributed small production sites model is used all over Europe for the low overhead bestowed upon the state in that model.
For solar power systems, a conversion unit is needed to convert the DC power generated from the panels to AC power usable on the power grid. The proposal comes with an objective to transfer the result of the previous research that produced an existing prototype of a Grid-Tie unit that is very highly competitive to imported products in terms of price and performance, with just 1/7th of its rivals cost. Most of the Grid-tie boxes found in the Egyptian market are made in China or Taiwan. They are expensive and unreliable. Moreover, they are known for their imprecise description in terms of the device efficiency and capability to deliver such power and voltage. Needless to say, such systems cannot be used on a large scale for distributed electricity small scale production solutions.
The existing prototype already developed can deliver up to 10KW with a cost of 1000$ and being able to deliver a variable range of power ranging between 1KW to 10KW. Our current objective is to take the prototype to the market through a process of industrialization. The project goes through three main phases. Industrial and product design, testing and accreditation, and finally a ready for large scale production phase. An industrial and product design phase will yield in a ready for production system level board.
- Microwave museum security system
The implemented security system block diagram (Figure 2) consists of a transceiver system that transmits a wave in a predefined direction and then receives the backscattered signal from that direction. The angle of transmission and reception is specified in such a way that the system scan the surrounding space within a sector of right angle. The sector angle is divided into 18 scanning angles. By analyzing the backscattered signal, the appearance and the disappearance of the monitored objects will be determined by the system. Also the system can track the object movement provided that the object moves within the system scanning area. The 3D identification of a point location is starting by identifying the point in a plane while the next step will be to identify it completely in 3D by duplicating the work in a perpendicular plane. So by identifying the target by two cross planes, one can get complete 3D information about the target. In this invention, the system is very similar to radar system where an incident wave is illuminating the target and from the scattered wave one can detect the target. The system also identifies the object print by transmitting an electromagnetic wave at 2.4 GHz towards the target. Upon receiving the backscattered wave, spatial convoluted E-pulse technique is applied to identify the target unique properties: size, material and geometrical shape.
System block diagram, layout and components on experimental setup
- CMOS Thermoelectric generator for electronic boards energy harvesting
Design, modeling, simulation and fabrication of micro-scale Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) compatible with the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) will be introduced.
We proposing novel design of a plasmonic lens to collect the thermal electromagnetic radiation. We have recently proposed a super lens to work in the visible and UV range based on plasmonic effect in metals]. In addition, we have recently verified that highly doped silicon can act like a plasmonic material in the Mid infrared range . Thus, we proposing to extend our lens desing the Mid infrared range using doped silicon as a metal-like material to act as a plasmonic material that can help in focusing the electromagnetic radiation in this range.
This lens acts as a simple wide band antenna that focuses the electromagnetic waves in the range of 1.5- 12 micrometer a thermal to electric conversion structured material using TEG will be then exploited to convert the localized thermal energy to electricity with acceptable efficiency. This is the working range for the thermal radiation as electromagnetic waves. Fabricating these structures on a silicon substrate should reduce the cost and allow for wide range of applications.
The collected thermal energy will be converted to electrical energy using TEG system. Constructing mathematical models and manufacturing prototypes in order to estimate the efficiency and the performance of an energy conversion mechanism constitute the major areas of research. In this project design, modelling, simulation and fabrication of microscale TEG compatible with the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) will be introduced.
-TEG design: The p-doped and n-doped poly-silicon materials are considered as the TEG thermopile at which both materials are monolithically integrated in the CMOS technology.
-TEG Modelling and Simulations: the main factor when designing TEGs for energy harvesters is not the efficiency but the maximum power-transfer to the load. Therefore it is very essential to perform modelling and simulations.
-Design, modelling and simulation of thermoelectric generator based on UMC of 0.13um CMOS based technology.
-Compatible SPICE model for the thermoelectric generator using UMC of 0.13um CMOS technology.
- Brain Disease Monitoring Neural Electrodes
Intra-cortical electrodes are sensors that capture electrical activities in the brain cortex; this is used in monitoring and analysing the neural interactions. Thin-film micro-electrodes are designed to have multiple recording sites on small footprints. Post-processing techniques including the application of thin-films coatings and the Nano-engineering of the interface pads can be used to improve the electrical characteristics and biocompatibility of the electrodes. The electrodes can be classified according to various design features such as geometry, number of channels, and anatomical position.
- Micro immunosensing biomedical cavity resonator diagnostic sensor
The second medical sensor is based on microwave for diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The technology we are proposing is a micro immunosensing diagnostic assay called: "Microstrip Cavity Resonator Bio-sensor (MCRB)" that be used for the diagnosis of viruses in biological samples, however, the technology can be modified for rapid, sensitive diagnosis of other bacterial diseases. The waveguide (cavity) method is well developed diagnostic technique in several literatures, however it requires that the material be excised and placed in a section of waveguide. This diagnostic method is based on the classical antigen antibody reaction, the complex antigen antibody can be diagnosed through the use of reflection coefficient, input impedance and resonance frequency of the microstrip cavity resonator bio-sensor. The values of these parameters will change according to changing of the electrical properties of the tested samples such as dielectric constant, electrical conductivity, resistivity, etc., from case of normal sample layer to infected sample layer with antigen/antibodies embedded.
The idea of the project, is to detect the change in the electrical properties of the clinical sample. The biosensor in this case is a bio-microwave electromagnetic surface (planar patch antenna with gold coating). The biological sample film containing the target viruses will be deposited on the metal surface of the antenna. Pre-defined electromagnetic wave will illuminate antenna surface. The electrical signal reflected from the antenna port will be measured with high accuracy. The system idea depends on the change in the electrical properties, such as conductivity, resistivity, dielectric constant, etc. The summary of experimental tasks will be in following sequence:
clean sample layer will be deposited with normal buffer electrical properties. The same measurements will be done for the samples collected from tested area layered onto the chip, various samples showing different stages of different titer of viruses will be used to standardize the test.
It consists of a planar antenna with metal surface, coated with gold (to prevent oxidation), a measuring facility for power level and frequency, electromagnetic source, mechanical micro-pump, etc.
The output signal level which depends on the electrical properties of the deposited layer will be measured accurately. Comparison with calibration table will be done automatically. From the signal level reading, a decision of infection existence will be automatically taken. The knowledge of the used antigen, gives information about viruses that need to be detected. The frequency of operation will be in the range of 2-3GHz in C-band, so the antenna chip size will be in the range of few square mms. The novelty in this idea, as mentioned above, is the measurement of the change of the electrical properties which makes the idea free from the molecular size limitation that exists in other systems as optical biosensors. The MCRB system could become a standard system for screening donor blood. Depending on the application, the system can be designed for different levels of complexity. The result of the screening can give quantitative figures for each pathogen. The high specificity, accuracy and sensitivity of the new method help to reach the goal of avoiding false positives as well as false negatives. Despite the accuracy of the method it is very rapid and can give results in few minutes. This ability together with the potential to screen for numerous pathogens makes the MCRB system well suited for screening donors prior to organ transplantations.
It has to be mentioned that the system is in principle able to either detect the pathogen (e.g. virus) itself or an antibody bond with the pathogen.
Microwave cavity resonator bio-electromagnetic sensor system
- Gas sensor for petrochemical industry
In the field of sensors, Gas sensors that have a wide variety of applications in environmental and safety monitoring in petrochemical industry. Environmentalists can use sensors to measure atmospheric pollution and monitor industrial emissions, and safety monitors can use sensors to detect harmful chemical vapors and explosives in public spaces. Hydrogen sulfide is the predominant impurity in natural gas. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies natural gas as sour when H2S is present "in amounts greater than 5.7 mg/Nm3. Human health effects of exposure to hydrogen sulfide, an irritant and an asphyxiate and instant death depend of the concentration of the gas and the length of exposure. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. Department of Labor) lists the acceptable concentration limit for exposure to H2S at 20 ppm for an eight-hour period, with the maximum peak exposure at 50 ppm for 10 minutes. The acceptable concentration limit for H2S is 5 ppm for an eight-hour period. In an electrochemical sensor the cells combine enclosed electrodes and electrolyte. H2S diffuses through a permeable membrane, the volume of H2S increases in the air, an oxidation or reduction reaction occurs at one of the electrodes, and as a result, a linear current change occurs. This enables a display or an amplifier device to generate an indication of the H2S level. These detectors also have high sensitivity and repeatability, which has established this as the toxic detection technology of choice in a wide variety of applications.